Effective pricing strategies are crucial for businesses to gain a competitive edge in the market and maximise profits. Marketing plays a vital role in shaping these strategies. By conducting a deep analysis of their target audience, for example, their spending behaviour & disposable income not only this, but also having a solid understanding of the current product life cycle (PLC), and customer lifetime value (CLV), businesses can optimise their pricing decisions and achieve greater success.

The marketing mix 7Ps framework involves product, price, place, promotion, people, process, and physical evidence. Each element influences pricing decisions and requires a strategic approach to ensure maximum profitability while staying relevant. Product life cycle stages and CLV calculations are essential in determining pricing strategies.

Understanding Effective Pricing Strategies

Effective pricing strategies are the backbone of a successful business. A well-planned pricing strategy can help businesses attract more customers, increase sales, and maximise profits. Pricing strategies are often overlooked, but they are crucial to the success of any business.

Businesses can use several pricing tactics and models to determine their pricing strategy. Some common examples of pricing strategies include Cost-Based Pricing, Market-Based Pricing, Value-Based Pricing, Dynamic Pricing, Penetration Pricing and Price Skimming.

Pricing Strategy



Cost-based pricing (also known as cost-plus pricing)

The price of an item is based on production expenses (raw materials, labour, rent, utilities) plus a desired profit margin.

Selling Price = Total Cost + Desired Profit Margin

A bakery determines the total cost of producing a cake, which includes ingredients, labour, and overhead expenses, to be $30. They add a 50% profit margin to cover desired earnings.

Selling Price = Total Cost + (50% of Total Cost) Selling Price = $30 + $15 = $45

The cost-based price for the cake is $45

Market-based Pricing

Market-based pricing is a pricing strategy where the selling price of a product or service is determined by analysing market conditions and competitor pricing, focusing on customer perceptions and market demand rather than production costs. A coffee shop sets its coffee prices based on what other coffee shops in the area charge for similar quality beverages, ensuring competitiveness and alignment with customer expectations (Think Starbucks, Tim Hortons & Caffe Nero. You will find that the cost in the UAE are within the same range)

Value-based Pricing

This approach emphasises understanding what customers are willing to pay based on the benefits, quality, and overall value they receive from the offering. The price is set to reflect the unique value proposition of the product or service in the eyes of the customer. A luxury watch brand prices its timepieces higher than competitors’ offerings due to its strong brand reputation, exquisite craftsmanship, and the perception of exclusivity, reflecting the premium value perceived by customers (Think Rolex vs Omega watches)

Dynamic Pricing

Dynamic pricing involves adjusting prices in real time based on market demand, time of day, seasonality, or other relevant factors.

(Note: to implement dynamic pricing, businesses need access to real-time data and advanced pricing algorithms to ensure optimal pricing decisions).

Particularly common in industries like hospitality (high season vs low season) and transportation (Rush hours vs nighttime).

Penetration Pricing

Penetration pricing aims to gain market share by setting initial prices lower than competitors. This approach is practical for new products or businesses entering a competitive market. Xiaomi, a Chinese electronics company, adopted a penetration pricing strategy when it entered various international markets, including the GCC, Egypt & India. Xiaomi penetrated markets and established itself as a significant player in the mobile industry.

Price Skimming

price skimming involves setting high initial prices for a unique or innovative product, gradually lowering them over time. This strategy suits products with strong brand recognition or cutting-edge technology, allowing companies to capitalise on early adopters willing to pay a premium. Think Etisalat UAE (Telecom). When it first launched the internet in the UAE, it was priced extremely high, or the cost for PCs in the 1980s or even mobile phones in the early 1990s.

Bundling and Upselling

Bundling complementary products together or upselling higher-tier versions encourages customers to spend more than they initially intended. Bundling: is used in McDonald’s or other fast-food restaurants when buying a combo meal is always cheaper than buying each item separately.

Upselling: When buying mobile data in Dubai, the basic comes with a lower price, but the AED 300+ comes with a discounted price and other features like Amazon Prime and other free services.

It is important to note that pricing strategies should be specific to each business and its unique circumstances. What works for one company may not work for another.

When determining a pricing strategy, businesses should consider their target market, competition, and the value their product provides to customers. Understanding these factors will help businesses determine the most suitable pricing strategy for their product or service.

The marketing mix 7Ps is a framework used to identify the key factors businesses should consider when developing and executing their marketing plan. It consists of seven elements – product, price, place, promotion, people, process, and physical evidence – each of which plays a vital role in determining the success of a business. Pricing strategy is an essential component of the marketing mix and is closely linked to the other elements of the framework.

Businesses must consider their product, target market, and competitive landscape when deciding on a pricing strategy. There are several pricing strategies to choose from, including cost-plus pricing, value-based pricing, penetration pricing, and skimming pricing, among others. Each pricing strategy is a reflection of the marketing tactics designed to address the 7Ps of the marketing mix.

Pricing Strategy

Marketing Tactics

Cost-Plus Pricing

Emphasis on cost management and production efficiency

Value-Based Pricing

Focus on a product’s unique value proposition and features.

Penetration Pricing

Lower prices to gain market share and create demand

Skimming Pricing

High prices to capitalise on a product’s novelty or exclusivity

Deciding on the right pricing strategy for a product is an important consideration for businesses, and it is crucial to select the department within an organisation that is responsible for pricing decisions. This department will work closely with the product management team to ensure pricing aligns with the product life cycle stages and the target market’s needs and demands.

In conclusion, pricing strategy is an integral part of the marketing mix 7Ps framework, and businesses must consider it carefully when developing their marketing plan. With careful analysis and implementation of pricing tactics aligned with the 7Ps, companies can optimise their success and maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Understanding Product Life Cycle and Pricing

Product life cycle is a concept that describes the stages a product goes through from its initial launch to its eventual decline. Understanding the various stages of the product life cycle is essential for businesses to develop effective pricing strategies to maximise their profits.




This is the stage where the product is first introduced to the market. The goal is to create awareness and generate interest among potential customers.


During this stage, the product gains broader acceptance and sales increase rapidly. Competition increases, but prices remain stable as companies focus on capturing market share.


In this stage, sales growth slows down, and the market becomes saturated. Companies start to focus on differentiating their product and reducing costs to maintain their profits. Prices may begin to drop as competition becomes more intense.


This is the final stage, where sales decline as the market becomes saturated and the product becomes obsolete. Companies may choose to discontinue the product or try to revitalise it with new features or marketing campaigns.

As a product progresses through these stages, different pricing strategies may be necessary to maintain profitability. In the introduction stage, businesses may choose to set a high price to recoup their development costs. In contrast, during the maturity stage, businesses may decide to lower their prices to remain competitive in an increasingly crowded market.

Businesses must also consider the product’s life cycle when developing marketing strategies. During the introduction stage, companies may focus on building brand awareness. In contrast, in the maturity stage, businesses may focus on differentiating their product from their competitors to maintain their market position.

Understanding the product life cycle is essential for businesses to make informed decisions during product development and create effective marketing and pricing strategies to maximise profits and ensure long-term success.


Pricing strategy & marketing objective in each stage of the Product Life Cycle (PLC)

In each stage of the Product Life Cycle, the pricing strategy and marketing objectives must align with the changing market conditions, customer preferences, and competitive landscape. Companies must continuously assess their product’s performance and adjust their strategies and objectives accordingly to maximise profitability and market share.

Also, I would highly recommend considering BCG’s Matric, founded by Bruce Henderson, when deciding on the pricing strategy and how you want it to support your other product services within the same category; this will be covered in more depth in my product-related article.

In conclusion, Pricing strategies are crucial for a business’s success throughout the various stages of the Product Life Cycle. Penetration pricing or price skimming is used during the Introduction stage, Competitive Pricing during Growth, Market-Based or Value-Based Pricing during Maturity, and Discount or Liquidation pricing during Decline. Comprehensive market research and analysis of competitors and customer needs are essential to make informed pricing decisions. Successful pricing strategies are adaptable and flexible, ensuring long-term success.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about pricing strategies.

In this section, I will address some of the most frequently asked questions during my marketing career, especially during the last 6 years of my consultancy career. These answers will help readers gain a comprehensive understanding of these concepts and their application in business settings.

I own a newly launched marketplace; how much should I charge vendors?

Check the data out there; I recommend checking how much Amazon or Noon are charging or other marketplaces in your country and trying to get them on board with lower fees for the first 12 to 24 months. The idea is to use the penetration pricing strategy to gain market share and have enough products to build your user base.

Who should be responsible for deciding on the pricing strategy?

In my experience, I always gather the head of product, director of marketing and director of finance to decide and agree on the pricing strategy. Here is why the 3 departments are important in my opinion:

  • Product Team: They know how many are in stock, How much they can produce, availability, and when we need to sell them out before any updated version is out.
  • Finance Team: They have access to all company expenditures, so they can help you with deciding the x amount of monthly sales to achieve the business financial target.
  • Marketing & Sales Team: to ensure that it is possible to deliver and that what is being asked is realistic, especially since most data from the product, Audience data, and competitor data is with the marketing team.

How does the product life cycle impact pricing strategies?

The product life cycle consists of four stages: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Pricing strategies should be adapted to each stage to maximise profits and maintain market share. For example, a business may use skimming pricing during the introduction stage, while during the maturity stage, they may use price matching or penetration pricing.

How should I determine the right price for my product to maximise profitability?

It depends, really; most startups close because of financial restraints; therefore, it is vital that you always have enough liquidity to ensure the business is going, but at the same time, you need to understand that your customers are savvy and if you are not offering them something worth your money they won’t buy it.

If I had to give an answer, I would say aim for market share and product trails when you first launch a business that already existed by someone else (penetration pricing).

What factors should I consider when setting the price for my product?

  • Costs: Consider both production and operating expenses when setting the price of a product to ensure a fair profit margin.
  • Value to Customers: Assess how your product meets customer needs and outperforms competitors. Determine its perceived value to customers.
  • Competitor Pricing: Check competitors’ prices and make sure your price is competitive while highlighting your product’s unique value.
  • Market Demand: Consider market demand when setting prices. High demand = premium pricing, low demand = competitive pricing.
  • Customer Price Sensitivity: Consider how price changes may impact demand and revenue for your target customers.
  • Brand Image: Your pricing strategy should reflect your brand image. For luxury, use premium pricing. For budget-friendly, use lower pricing.
  • Product Life Cycle: Different strategies work for introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.
  • Distribution Channels: Distribution costs and margins vary based on sales channels, like direct sales, retail partnerships, or e-commerce platforms.
  • Seasonality Adjust prices based on seasonal demand changes.
  • Regulatory and Legal Constraints: Be aware of any regulations or legal restrictions that may impact pricing decisions in your industry or target markets.
  • Bundling and Upselling Opportunities: Group similar products or offer upgrades to increase sales value.
  • Profitability Goals: Set clear profit objectives for your product and align your pricing strategy with these goals.

How can I effectively implement dynamic pricing to adjust prices based on market demand and fluctuations?

  • Data Analysis: Gather real-time data on market demand, customer behaviour, and competitor pricing using advanced analytics and monitoring tools.
  • Identify Triggers: Determine the factors that trigger price adjustments, such as demand spikes, inventory levels, or external events.
  • Pricing Rules: Develop flexible pricing rules and algorithms to automatically adjust prices based on predefined conditions and pricing strategies.
  • Competitor Monitoring: Continuously track competitor prices and respond quickly to remain competitive.
  • Testing and Optimization: Regularly test different pricing scenarios and analyse the impact on sales and revenue to optimise dynamic pricing strategies.
  • Communication: Clearly communicate pricing changes to customers, emphasising the value they receive despite fluctuations.
  • Monitoring and Adaptation: Monitor the effectiveness of dynamic pricing regularly and adapt strategies as market conditions evolve.

Dynamic pricing enables you to respond rapidly to market changes, optimise revenue, and enhance competitiveness. However, it requires accurate data, sophisticated algorithms, and continuous monitoring to ensure successful implementation.

What pricing tactics can I use to encourage customer loyalty and repeat purchases?

  • Loyalty Programs: Offer discounts, rewards, or points for repeat purchases, incentivising customers to return.
  • Volume Discounts: Provide lower prices for bulk purchases, encouraging customers to buy more at once.
  • Subscription Models: Offer subscription-based pricing with benefits and perks to foster long-term customer commitment.
  • Promotional Pricing: Run limited-time promotions or special offers to create a sense of urgency for repeat purchases.
  • Personalized Pricing: Tailor pricing based on individual customer preferences or purchase history to strengthen customer relationships.
  • Freebies and Add-ons: Provide complimentary products or services with purchases to enhance perceived value and delight customers.

What role does perceive value play in pricing decisions, and how can I enhance the perceived value of my product?

Perceived value plays a vital role in pricing decisions as it influences how customers perceive the worth of a product relative to its price. Customers are more likely to pay higher costs if they believe the product offers superior benefits, quality, and satisfaction compared to alternatives.

To enhance perceived value, focus on:

  • Product Quality: Ensure your product meets or exceeds customer expectations in terms of performance and durability.
  • Differentiation: Highlight unique features and benefits that set your product apart from competitors.
  • Branding and Reputation: Build a strong brand image and reputation for reliability and excellence.
  • Customer Experience: Deliver exceptional customer service and post-purchase support to enhance overall satisfaction.
  • Marketing and Messaging: Craft compelling marketing messages that emphasise the value and benefits of your product.

Consistently enhancing and clearly expressing the value of your product can significantly impact how customers perceive it and validate pricing choices. This can ultimately lead to building customer loyalty and their willingness to pay a higher price.

What data and analytical tools should I use to make informed pricing decisions?

  • Sales and Revenue Data: Analyse historical sales data and revenue to understand price-performance relationships and identify trends.
  • Competitor Pricing Data: Monitor competitor pricing using market research tools and price tracking software to benchmark your pricing strategy.
  • Market Research: Conduct customer surveys, focus groups, and market studies to gauge price sensitivity and gather customer feedback.
  • Customer Segmentation Data: Segment customers based on demographics, behaviour, and preferences to tailor pricing strategies.
  • Cost Data: Understand production and operational costs to set profitable price points.
  • Dynamic Pricing Algorithms: Implement advanced pricing algorithms that adjust prices in real time based on market demand and other factors.
  • Business Intelligence (BI) Tools: Utilize BI tools to visualise and analyse pricing data effectively.

Here are some tools that might help you with achieving the same:

  • Price2Spy: A competitive price tracking and monitoring tool that helps you monitor competitor prices and adjust your pricing strategy accordingly.
  • ProfitWell: Provides pricing intelligence and analytics, helping you analyse customer behaviour and optimise your pricing for maximum profitability.
  • Wiser: An automated pricing and repricing platform that dynamically adjusts prices based on market data and business rules.
  • Competera: An AI-driven pricing platform that offers competitive intelligence and dynamic pricing capabilities.
  • Zilliant: Uses AI and data science to provide pricing and sales optimisation solutions for businesses.
  • Salesforce: A widely used customer relationship management (CRM) platform that provides comprehensive sales and revenue data tracking and reporting capabilities.
  • HubSpot: Another popular CRM platform that offers robust sales analytics to track and analyse sales performance, revenue trends, and customer data.
  • Zoho CRM: A CRM tool with powerful sales analytics and reporting features to track sales activities, pipeline performance, and revenue generation.
  • SurveyMonkey: A popular online survey platform that allows you to create and distribute surveys to gather valuable customer feedback and market insights.
  • Google Trends: Provides insights into the popularity and search interest for specific keywords and topics, helping you understand market trends and consumer interests.
  • Mintel: A market intelligence platform that offers comprehensive market research reports, consumer insights, and industry analysis to support data-driven decision-making.
  • Optimove: An advanced customer segmentation and personalised marketing automation platform that helps businesses target and engage customers based on their behaviour and preferences.
  • Mixpanel: A user analytics platform that provides user segmentation features to segment customers based on their interactions with your website or app.
  • Kissmetrics: A customer analytics and segmentation tool that allows businesses to analyse customer behaviour and segment users based on various parameters.
  • Tableau: A powerful data visualisation and business intelligence tool that helps businesses analyse and understand their data through interactive dashboards and reports.
  • Power BI: Microsoft’s BI platform that provides data visualisation, business analytics, and self-service reporting capabilities.
  • QlikView: A data discovery and visualisation tool that enables users to explore and analyse data to uncover valuable insights.


If you need help with choosing the optimal tools for your business requirements, do not hesitate to reach out to me. I am confident that I can provide you with the necessary guidance and expertise to make the right decision for your organization.